James Estes

Department of Biological Sciences
University of California, Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, CA
Email: jestes@cats.ucsc.edu

Project:             Population Dynamics and Biology of the California Sea Otter at the Southern End of its Range
Education:          B.A.                     Zoology, University of Minnesota                                                                       1967
                             M.S.                     Zoology, Washington State University                                                                1969
                             Ph.D.                   Biological Sciences/Statistics, University of Arizona                                             1974
Positions:          1984-Present      Supervisory Zoologist, GM-486/15, California Science Center, National Biological Service, Santa Cruz, California
                             1978-Present      Adjunct Professor, Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz
                             1979-Present      Research Biologist, Institute for Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz
                             1978-1981            Wildlife Biologist (Research), GS-486/12, Marine Mammal Section, National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory, FWS, Santa Cruz, California
                             1977-1978            Wildlife Biologist (Research), GS-486/12, Marine Mammal Section, National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory, FWS, Anchorage, Alaska
                             1974-1977            Wildlife Biologist (Research), GS-486/11, Marine Mammal Section, National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory, FWS, Anchorage, Alaska
Selected Publications:

Estes, J.A., Hatfield, B.B., Ralls, K., et al. 2003. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline. Mar. Mammal Sci. 19(1): 198-216.

Gelatt, T.S., Siniff, D.B., and J.A. Estes. 2002. Activity patterns and time budgets of the declining sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska. J. Wildlife Manage. 66(1): 29-39.

Schroeter, S.C., Reed, D.C., Kushner, D.J., et al. 2001. The use of marine reserves in evaluating the dive fishery for the warty sea cucumber (Parastichopus parvimensis) in California, USA. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(9): 1773-1781.

Jackson, J.B.C., Kirby, M.X., Berger, W.H., et al. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293(5530): 629-638.

Monson, D.H., Estes, J.A., Bodkin, J.L., et al. 2000. Life history plasticity and population regulation in sea otters. Oikos 90(3): 457-468.

Watt, J., Siniff, D.B., and J.A. Estes. 2000. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Oecologia 124(2): 289-298.

Paddack, M., and J.A. Estes. 2000. Comparison of kelp forest fish populations inside and outside of marine reserves in   central California. Ecological Applications 10(3): 855-870.

Estes, J.A. and C.H. Peterson. 2000. Marine ecological research in seashore and seafloor systems: accomplishments and future directions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 195: 281-289.

Anthony, R.G., Miles, A.K., Estes, J.A., et al. 1999. Productivity, diets, and environmental contaminants in      nesting bald eagles from the Aleutian Archipelago. Environ. Toxic. Chem. 18(9): 2054-2062.

Williams, T.M., Noren, D., Berry, P., Estes, J.A., Allison, C., and J. Kirtland. 1999. The diving physiology of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). III. Thermoregulation at depth. J. of Experimental Biology 202: 2763-2769.

Dobson, A., Ralls, K., Foster, M., Soulé, M.E., Simberloff, D., Doak, D., Estes, J.A., Mills, L.S., Mattson, D.,     Dirzo, R., Arita, H., Ryan, S., Norse, E.A., Noss, R.F., and D. Johns. 1999. Connectivity: maintaining flows in fragmented landscapes. Pp. 129-170 in, M. E. Soulé and J. Terborgh, eds., Continental Conservation, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Scott, J.M., Norse, E.A., Arita., H., Dobson, A., Estes, J.A., Foster, M., Gilbert, B., Jensen, D.B., Knight, R.L., Mattson, D. and M.E. Soulé. 1999. The issue of scale in selecting and designing biological reserves. Pp. 19-38 in, M. E. Soulé and J. Terborgh, eds., Continental Conservation, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Terborgh, J., Estes, J.A., Paquet, P., Ralls, K., Boyd-Herger, D., Miller, B.J., and R.F. Noss. 1999. The role of top carnivores in regulating terrestrial ecosystems. Pp. 39-64 in, M. E. Soulé and J. Terborgh, eds., Continental Conservation, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Miller, B., et al. 1999. Biological and technical considerations of carnivore translocation: a review. Animal Conservation 2(1): 59-68.

Bacon, C.E., Jarman, W.M., Estes, J.A., Simon, M., and R.J. Norstrom. 1999. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18: 452-458.

Estes, J.A. 1999. Otter-eating orcas-Response to Garshelis and Johnson. Science 283(5399): 177.

Golet, G.H., Irons, D.B., and J.A. Estes. 1998. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes. J. Animal Ecology 61(5): 827-841.

Lindberg, D.L., Estes, J.A. and K.A. Warheit. 1998. Human influences on trophic cascades along rocky shores. Ecological Applications 8(3): 880-890.

Estes, J.A., Tinker, M.T., Williams, T.M., and D.F. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282: 473-476.

Estes, J.A. 1998. Concerns about the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife. Conservation Biology 12: 1156-1157.

Estes, J.A. 1997. Wild Otters--Predation and Populations. (Book Review). J. Wildlife Manage. 61: 984-987.

Estes, J.A., Bacon, C.E., Jarman, W.M., Nordstrom, R.J., Anthony, R.G., and A.K. Miles. 1997. Organochlorines in sea otters and bald eagles from the Aleutian Archipelago. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34: 486-490.

Estes, J.A. 1996. Predators and ecosystem management. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 24: 390-396.

Garshelis, D.L. and J.A. Estes. 1996. Sea otter mortality from the Exxon Valdez spill: evaluation of an estimate from boat-based surveys. Marine Mammal Science 13(2): 341-351.

Ralls, K., DeMaster, D., and J.A. Estes 1996. Developing a criterion for delisting the southern sea otter under the US Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1528-1537.

Stern, J.L., Hagerman, A.E., Steinberg, P.D., Winter, F.C., and J.A. Estes. 1996. A new assay for quantifying brown algal phlorotannins and comparisons to previous methods. J. Chem. Ecol. 22: 1273-1293.

Cronin, M.A., Bodkin, J., Bellachey, B., Estes, J.A., and J.C. Patton. 1996. Mitochondrial-DNA variation among subspecies and populations of sea otters (Enhydra lutris). J. Mammal. 77: 546-557.

Power, M.E., Tilman, D., Estes, J.A., Menge, B.A., Bond, W.J., Mills, L.S., Daily, G., Castilla, J.C., Lubchenco, J., and R.T. Paine. 1996. Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience 46: 609-620

Power, M.E., Tilman, D., Carpenter, S.E., et al. 1995. The role of experiments in ecology. Science 270: 561.

Estes, J.A. 1996. The influence of large, mobile predators in aquatic food webs: examples from sea otters and kelp forests. Pp.65-72 in S.P.R. Greenstreet and M.L. Tasker, eds., Aquatic Predators and their Prey. Fishing News Books, Oxford.

Steinberg, P.D., Estes, J.A., and F.C. Winter. 1995. Evolutionary consequences of food chain length in kelp forest communities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92: 8145-8148.

Estes, J.A. 1995. Top-level carnivores and ecosystem effects: questions and approaches. Pp.151-158 in C.G. Jones and J.H. Lawton (eds.). Linking Species and Ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Estes, J.A, and D.O. Duggins. 1995. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs 65: 75-100.

McShane, L.J., J.A. Estes, M.L. Riedman, and M.M. Staedler. 1995. Repertoire, structure, and individual variation of vocalizations in the sea otter. J. Mammal. 76: 414-427.

Estes, J.A. 1994. Conservation of Marine Otters. Aquatic Mammals 20 (3): 125-128.

Riedman, M.L., J.A. Estes, M. Staedler, A. Giles, and D. Carlson. 1994. Breeding patterns and reproductive success of sea otters in California. J. Wildife Manage. 58: 391-399.

Estes, J.A., G.B. Rathbun, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 1993. Paradigms for managing carnivores: the case of the sea otter. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 65: 307-320.

Estes, J.A. 1992. Behavior, ecology, and life history of New World otters. pp. 107-117 in C. Reuther and R. Rochert (eds.), Proceedings of the V. International Otter Colloquium, Hankensbuttel. Habitat 6.

Winter, F.C., and J.A. Estes. 1992. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum (Phaeophyta; Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone (Haliotus rufescens). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 155:263-277.

Estes, J.A. 1991. Catastrophes and conservation: Lessons from sea otters and the Exxon Valdez. Science 254: 1596.

Riedman, M.L., and J.A. Estes. 1990. The sea otter (Enhydra lutris): behavior, ecology, and natural history. Biological Report 90(14), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 126pp.

Estes, J.A. 1990. Action Plan for sea otters. Pp. 22-28 in P. Foster-Turley, S. Macdonald, and C. Mason (eds.). Otters. An Action Plan for their Conservation. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Ill.

Smith, D.R., S. Niemeyer, J.A. Estes, and A.R. Flegal. 1990. Stable lead isotopes evidence anthropogenic contamination in Alaskan sea otters. Environ. Sci. Tech. 24: 1517-1521.

Estes, J.A. 1990. Assessment of sea otter population status: a reply. J. Wildl. Manage. 54: 270-272.

Estes, J.A. 1990. Growth and equilibrium in sea otter populations. J. Animal Ecol. 59: 385-400.

Miller, K.A. and J.A. Estes. 1989. A western range extension for Nereocystis leutkeana in the North Pacific. Botanica marina 32: 535-538.

Estes, J.A., D.O. Duggins, and G. Rathbun. 1989. The ecology of extinctions in kelp forest communities. Conservation Biology 3: 252-264.

Duggins, D.O., C.A. Simenstad, and J.A. Estes. 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245: 170-173.

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